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Aspergillus is a genus consisting of several hundred mold species found
in various climates worldwide. Aspergillus was first catalogued
in 1729 by the Italian priest and biologist Pier Antonio Micheli.
Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum(holy water sprinkler), from Latin spargere (to sprinkle), and named the genus accordingly.Aspergillosis is the group of diseases
caused by Aspergillus.The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain or breathlessness. Today "aspergillum" is also the name of an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergilli; around one-third of species are also known to have a sexual stage.Aspergillus species are highly aerobic and are found in almost all oxygen-rich environments, where they commonly grow as molds on the surface of a substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension.Species of Aspergillus are important medically and commercially. Some species can cause infection in humans and other animals. Usually, only patients with already weakened immune systems or who suffer other lung conditions
are susceptible.Infections can be t1reated.
Den vanligste gjærsoppen blant mennesker. Hører til menneskets normalflora. Finnes utbredt i naturen. Hos mennesker, planter og dyr, særlig i gastrointestinaltractus og i vagina. Ved nedsatt immunforsvar kan det utvikles trøske i munnen, vaginitt og interigo på huden. Hematogen disseminasjon forekommer. Disponerende faktor for k albicans er antibiotikabruk, diabetes, AIDS, cytostatikabehandling, osv.
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C.difficile is a gram positive, anaerobe, mobile, sporeproducing rod. C. difficile causes pseudomembraneous colitis often Passociated with antibiotic treatment.
The bacteria produce enterotoxin which destroys the mucuous membrane of the intestine causing diarrhoea. C. difficile is found in soil and often in the intestine of
humans and animals. The spores can survive in the environment for months and years. The transmission mode is direct contact, fecal-oral. C.difficile is a common nosocomial pathogen. Infections can be difficult to treat.
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